IRANIAN BAR ASSOCIATION
* Bar Association Today
* The Organization of the Bar Association
* Connection with Judiciary
* A Glance and approach to the future
* Historical Survey
It has been said that records and history of attorneyship profession is equivalent to history of mankind , and antiquity of attorneyship in civil affairs within Islamic laws and norms stretches further back to l400 years ago . In this Concept Iranian 90 years of claims attending by the attorneys can not be considered as having a long and ancient history .
But what it can be said decisiveness is that emergence of modern laws in Iran evolved concurrently with prevalence of Attorney claims management as a fully recognized and serious phenomenon within the society
Prior to Iranian constitutionalism Revolution ( year 1903 ) claims were attended and resolved by religious clergymen and scholars , i . e . certain individuals being not bounded to special laws and formalities attended defending of the individuals at Religious Jurisdiction courts .
In year 1866 the First “ Laws expurgation Commissions “ , being responsible for compilation of new and up dated laws through translation of foreign laws , was established in Iran .
This Commission , in year l911 , issued First Charter in connection with attorneys which by its virtue attorney were held liable to take part in certain qualification examination and upon success certificates were conferred upon them .
Reviewing attorneyship history in Iran shows that developmental trend of
laws and by laws as related to this profession inclined and tended towards Independence .
In l952 this independence , during Prime Ministry of Dr . Mohammad Mosadegh ,
He signed the bill of independence of the Iranian Bar Association , and such status was nearly completed .
Subsequently this Bill was ratified by the Iranian Parliament . After victory of the Islamic Revolution in Iran Independence of Bar Association was suspended for a duration of 18 years , during which government appointed a supervisor for the Bar Association .
In year l997 by approving modern laws once again board of directors was appointed for administration of Iranian Bar Association thus commencing a new independence era .
These days in Iran we have 13 independent Bar Associations and about 12,000 attorneys and trainees are their members and associates. Persia, Persian, Iran, Iranian Bar Associations Union & Persia, Persian, Iran, Iranian Lawyers & Persia, Persian, Iran, Iranian Attorney at Law
These Bar Associations are classified according to their Iranian territorial status as follows:
+ Central Bar Association (located in the city of Tehran) Center, Markaz, Tehran Bar Association
+ Azarbayjan-e Khavari & Ardebil Bar Association (located in the city of Tabriz) East, Azerbaijan-e, Azerbayjan-e, Azarbaijan-e Sharghi, Tabriz Bar Association
+ Fars, Bushehr & Kohgiluyeh va Boyerahmad Bar Association (located in the city of Shiraz) Pars, Busher, Boosher, Booshehr, Koohgilooyeh, Koohkiluyeh, Koohkilooyeh, Koohgiluyeh, Kohgilooyeh, Kohkiluyeh, Kohkilooyeh, Booyer Ahmad, Buyer Ahmad, Shiraz Bar Association
+ Khorasan Bar Association (located in the city of Mashhad) Khoorasan, Khurasan, Mashad, Mashhad Bar Association
+ Esfahan Bar Association (located in the city of Esfahan) Esfehan, Isfehan, Isfahan, Markazi, Chahar Mahal Bakhtiari, Bakhtiary, Bakhtyari, Bakhtyary Bar Association
+ Azarbayjan-e Gharbi & Kordestan Bar Association (located in the city of Orumiyeh) West, Azerbaijan-e, Azerbayjan-e, Azarbaijan-e Bakhtari, Oroomieh, Oroomiyeh, Orumieh, Orumiyeh Bar Association
+ Gilan Bar Association (located in the city of Rasht) Gillan, Rasht Bar Association
+ Mazandaran & Golestan Bar Association (located in the city of Sari) Sari Bar Association
+ Qazvin & Zanjan Bar Association (located in the city of Qazvin) Ghazvin Bar Association
+ Kermanshah & Ilam Bar Association (located in the city of Kermanshah) Kermansha, Eelam, Eilam, Ilam, Elam Bar Association
+ Khuzestan and Lorestan Bar Association (located in the city of Ahvaz) Khoozestan, Loorestan, Lurestan, Ahvaz Bar Association
+ Hamadan Bar Association (located in the city of Hamadan) Hamedan Bar Association
+ Qom Bar Association (located in the city of Qom) Ghom Bar Association
* Names spelled out based on what the United Nations globally published on http://www.un.org/Depts/Cartographic/english/htmain.htm
The problem that Independent Bar Associations are now facing and encountering , is a Bill which is instituted for ratification . By virtue of this Act Judiciary sector is authorized and empowered to issue certain type of attorneyship License . Bar Associations are in the opinion that issue of such licenses by the Judiciary , taking into account the fact that every year same authority must extend their validity , revokes freedom of action from the attorney . In principle Bar Associations are in opposition with this phenomenon that judicial prosecutors ( persons assigned to follow up and issue verdicts ) and those individuals who have undertaken defending of accused persons are both related and affiliated to one Organization ie . Judiciary . They consider this condition as being in contradiction to people ’ s “ Defense Right “ which has been foreseen and guaranteed by provisions already stipulated in 35th article of Iranian Constitutional laws .
This issue is still being pursued .
* Bar Association Today
Attorneys at law will appoint Bar Association ’ s board of directors by their direct ballot , and likewise board of directors shall appoint president of the Association .
The attorneys at law pay all of the Bar Association ’ s administrative expenses and this association does not receive any financial aid from the government .
Joining this profession is possible through successful passing the prescribed matriculation examinations , and passers will undertake a 18 months duration training course under direct supervision of the Bar Association and finally they will participate in one of the Most difficult examinations held in Iran .
During training course candidate is required to write a thesis and take part in speech sessions and also attend court hearings .
* The Organization of the Bar Association
Metropolitan Bar Association constitutes various divisions which are elaborated as hereunder in synopsis format :
1 . - Board of directors which is Bar Association ’ s decision maker and administrator , are appointed by the attorneys then board members will subsequently designate Bar ’ s Chairman .
2 . - Public prosecutor , public prosecutor ’ s offices , and disciplinary courts being liable to legally follow up and punishing offender attorney , shall proceed their jurisdiction up to cancellation of attorney ship License .
3 . - Legal aids division , which its scope of responsibility is offering free of charge legal consultation to all referrers ( regardless of their financial abilities ) and designate “ assisting attorney “ to those individuals whose financial inability have been proved ( in Civil laws ) .
4 . - Training commission is liable to implement primary nominations , then organize and carry out 18 months duration training , and finally supervise holding of final examinations for attorneyship trainees .
5 . - International Relations Commission .
6 . - Public Relation commission out of which two Informatic and welfare committees are subdivided .
7 . - Commission on court appointed power of attorneys . Its scope of duties are introducing court appointed attorney for poor accused persons ( division for offering ligal aids implements these works in connection with civil laws ) .
8 . - Commission for protecting attorneys . This division takes appropriate actions , in cases where an attorney is somehow subject to an offense or illegitimate attack , for protecting same attorney .
9 . - Commission in legal affairs , which responds to attorney ’ s problems and inquiries for resolving their legal issues .
10 . - Inquiries Commission which is responsible to respond to board of directors questions and ambiguities .
11 . - Special commission for implementing verification and investigation about ethical and past resume status of trainees and candidates who shown intention of entering attorneyship profession ( former judges , employees having past legal careers and Judicial Army officers ) , i . e . prior to issue practicing licenses for them .
12 . - Supervisory commission , and Art . 55 : This commission is liable to Extend supervision on performance of attorneys and trainees , even after issue of attorneyship or training licenses . Also obligated to campaign against those pretentious persons attending attorneyship , and also middlemen and generally campaign against those who are engaged in attorneyship practices without having legal license .
13 . - Publication Commission : This commission is liable to publish Bar Association ’ s Magazine , and internal news publication as well as publication of books and other literatures related to the Bar Association .
14 . - Loan Commission : After several years of discussions and debate finally in year l977 the law for formation of Fund under title of : Attorney Protection Fund was ratified and its executive directives and regulations was compiled some years ago .
After many years attorneys of the Justice department possessed Insurance and Retirement schemes , being insufficient but it is useful . This Fund which its financial resources have been / are furnished by the Judiciary ’ s attorneys , grants loans for allocation and purchase of practicing office premises , and/ or loan to be used in emergency and necessary cases and states .
15 . - Promotion Commission : This commission is attending certain cases where an attorney , as results sustaining punishment , is condemned to rank descending thus loses the competency for interfering in certain courts . After several years such persons can appeal for restoration of their former status . Also certain attorneys from old generation ( being 2nd . & 3rd . Class Attorneys ) shall be entitled and allowed to apply for their rank ( Class ) promotion . Promotion Commission is dealing with status of such persons as elaborated above .
Present board of directors of Metropolitan Bar Association can take appropriate actions , taking into account social and scientific development and advancements and while considering modern day ’ s necessities , for organizing and holding these educational /training classes in such areas as ; English Language , Computer Orientation , Internet , and other legal specialty courses in those areas which these days are mostly required and well received by the Bar Association .
Also board of directors has tried its best efforts and endeavors , despite having financial and practicality obstacles , to promote establishment of International relations and communication with relevant organizations such as IBA , and Bar Association of other countries .
* Connection with Judiciary
Although Bar Association is an independent entity , but from certain aspects has close connection with the Iranian Judiciary :
1 . - Determination of required number of attorneys for each region is at discretion of a special commission in which Judiciary has majority membership in it .
2 . - Revising verdicts issued by the Attorneys Disciplinary courts is only by judgement of the Judges Supreme Disciplinary court . Also revealing competency for membership at board of directors of Bar Association must be approved by such above stated court . Majority of attorneys do not agree with above stated two cases , but anyway currently laws prescribes these procedures .
3 . - Change of executive directives on the Bill for independence of Bar Association and law ratified in l997 is allocated to the Judiciary .
4 . - Certain Judiciary Authorities are entitled to appeal for revision on verdicts issued by the Attorneys Disciplinary court , and also have rights to demand suspension of the attorney .
Anyway , what is evident is , there should be a healthy and constructive relationship amongst Bar Association and Judiciary body for establishment of mutual understanding , but away from dominance , ALL in such manner that independence of the Bar Association and attorneys being affiliated to it would be infringed .
* A Glance and approach to the future
Bar Association hopes to be able , in connection with specialized education and up dating information and knowledge of its members , to JOIN worldwide information networks , and have potent presence and participation in International markets of rendering legal services .
Iranian Bar Association is decisive to establish solid and continuous communication with other attorneys worldwide , and exchange views with them , and finally promote and teach culture of attroneyship on National level and take up more expedited strides in these areas , and for accomplishment of these scope of objectives expects assistance from world ’ s attorneys and their Bar Associations , and any other relevant International Organizations related to practice domain of the attorneys .
Lawyer Search <
*كانون جهاني (IBA)
* شوراي اجرائي
*كرمانشاه و ايلام
امور وكلا و كارآموزان *فهرست اسامي
*كارآموزي و اختبار
طرحها و لوايح وكالت
*لوايح و اوراق
*پرسش و پاسخ
*حقوقي و داخلي
All Rights Reserved.|
© 2003 Iranian Bar Associations Union
No. 3, Zagros St., Argentina Sq., Tehran, Iran
Phone: +98 21 8887167-9 Fax: +98 21 8771340
Site was technically designed & developed by Nima Norouzi